Monday, 15 June 2015

ROUNDUP - Monsanto’s Roundup Herbicide May Be Most Important Factor in Development of Autism and Other Chronic Disease


Monsanto’s Roundup Herbicide May Be Most Important Factor in Development of Autism and Other Chronic Disease

Stes de Necker
Article written by Dr. Mercola

In recent weeks, we've learned some very disturbing truths about glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, which is generously doused on genetically engineered (GE) Roundup Ready crops.

GE crops are typically far more contaminated with glyphosate than conventional crops, courtesy of the fact that they're engineered to withstand extremely high levels of Roundup without perishing along with the weed.

A new peer-reviewed report authored by Anthony Samsel, a retired science consultant, and a long time contributor to the Vital Votes Forum, and  Dr. Stephanie Seneff, a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), reveals how glyphosate wrecks human health.

Dr. Seneff summarizes the two key problems caused by glyphosate in the diet:

Nutritional deficiencies
Systemic toxicity

Their findings make the need for labeling all the more urgent, and the advice to buy certified organic all the more valid.

The Horrific Truth about Roundup

In 2009, a French court found Monsanto guilty of lying; falsely advertising its Roundup herbicide as "biodegradable," "environmentally friendly" and claiming it "left the soil clean."

Mounting evidence now tells us just how false such statements are. Monsanto has not been labeled as the most evil companies on the planet for nothing. The company has done absolutely nothing to improve their worldwide influence on human and environmental health. What they've come up with is a way of pretending that they're beneficial to the food and agriculture industry, and now it turns out that what they have is very, very dangerous.

According to Dr. Seneff, glyphosate is possibly "the most important factor in the development of multiple chronic diseases and conditions that have become prevalent in Westernized societies," including but not limited to:

Gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic diarrhea, colitis and Crohn's disease

Alzheimer's disease
Cardiovascular disease
Parkinson's disease
Multiple sclerosis
ALS, and more

How Glyphosate Worsens Modern Diseases

While Monsanto insists that Roundup is as safe to humans as aspirin, Seneff and Samsel's research tells a different story altogether. Their report, published in the journal Entropy1, argues that glyphosate residues, found in most commonly consumed foods in the Western diet courtesy of GE sugar, corn, soy and wheat, "enhance the damaging effects of other food-borne chemical residues and toxins in the environment to disrupt normal body functions and induce disease."

Interestingly, your gut bacteria are a key component of glyphosate's mechanism of harm.

Monsanto has steadfastly claimed that Roundup is harmless to animals and humans because the mechanism of action it uses (which allows it to kill weeds), called the shikimate pathway, is absent in all animals. However, the shikimate pathway IS present in bacteria, and that's the key to understanding how it causes such widespread systemic harm in both humans and animals.

The bacteria in your body outnumber your cells by 10 to 1. For every cell in your body, you have 10 microbes of various kinds, and all of them have the shikimate pathway, so they will all respond to the presence of glyphosate!

Glyphosate causes extreme disruption of the microbe's function and lifecycle. What's worse, glyphosate preferentially affects beneficial bacteria, allowing pathogens to overgrow and take over.

At that point, your body also has to contend with the toxins produced by the pathogens. Once the chronic inflammation sets in, you're well on your way toward chronic and potentially debilitating disease. In the interview above, Dr. Seneff reviews a variety of chronic diseases, explaining how glyphosate contributes to each condition.

The Overlooked Component of Toxicity

The research reveals that glyphosate inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, a large and diverse group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of organic substances. This, the authors state, is "an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals." One of the functions of CYP enzymes is to detoxify xenobiotics—chemical compounds found in a living organism that are not normally produced or consumed by the organism in question. By limiting the ability of these enzymes to detoxify foreign chemical compounds, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of chemicals and environmental toxins you may be exposed to.

But that's not all. Dr. Stephanie Seneff has been conducting research at MIT for over three decades. 
She also has an undergraduate degree in biology from MIT and a minor in food and nutrition.

"[W]e show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport," 

"Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer's disease.  ... [T]he recent alarming increase in all of these health issues can be traced back to a combination of gut dysbiosis, impaired sulfate transport, and suppression of the activity of the various members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of enzymes."

The Roundup-Autism Connection

For the past 30 years, Dr. Seneff has been passionate about teasing out potential causes of autism, after seeing what it was like for a close friend whose son was diagnosed. She points out the clear correlations between increased glyphosate use over recent years (the result of genetically engineered crops causing weed resistance, necessitating ever-larger amounts to be used) and skyrocketing autism rates.

The rate of autism has risen so quickly, there can be no doubt that it has an environmental cause.

Our genes simply cannot mutate fast enough to account for the rapid rise we're now seeing.

The latest statistics released by the CDC on March 20 show that 1 in 50 children in the US now fall within the autism spectrum2,3, with a 5:1 boy to girl ratio. 

Just last year the CDC reported a rate of 1 in 88, which represented a 23 percent increase since 2010, and 78 percent since 2007. Meanwhile, I remember when the incidence of autism in the US was only 1 in 10,000—just short of 30 years ago!

Dr. Seneff identified two key problems in autism that are unrelated to the brain yet clearly associated with the condition—both of which are linked with glyphosate exposure.

Gut dysbiosis (imbalances in gut bacteria, inflammation, leaky gut, food allergies such as gluten intolerance)

Disrupted sulfur metabolism / sulfur and sulfate deficiency

Interestingly, certain microbes in your body actually break down glyphosate, which is a good thing.

However, a byproduct of this action is ammonia, and children with autism tend to have significantly higher levels of ammonia in their blood than the general population. Ditto for those with Alzheimer's disease. In your brain, ammonia causes encephalitis, i.e. brain inflammation.

Another devastating agent you really do not want in your body is formaldehyde, which a recent nutritional analysis discovered is present in genetically engineered corn at a level that is 200 times the amount that animal studies have determined to be toxic to animals. Formaldehyde destroys DNA and can cause cancer.

Other research backing up the Roundup-autism link is that from former US Navy staff scientist Dr. Nancy Swanson. She has a Ph.D. in physics, holds five US patents and has authored more than 30 scientific papers and two books on women in science. Ten years ago, she became seriously ill, and in her journey to regain her health she turned to organic foods. Not surprisingly (for those in the know) her symptoms dramatically improved. This prompted her to start investigating genetically engineered foods.

She has meticulously collected statistics on glyphosate usage and various diseases and conditions, including autism. A more perfect match-up between the rise in glyphosate usage and incidence of autism is hard to imagine... To access her published articles and reports, anyone can visit her Website, Sustainable Pulse4, a European website dedicated to exposing the hazards of genetically engineered foods.

When Food Is Poison

What the biotech industry, spearheaded by Monsanto, has managed to do is turn food into poison... quite literally, and in more ways than one. Here, we're just talking about the effects of Roundup.

 There are plenty of indications that the genetic alteration of a crop itself can pose significant health concerns. So with the vast majority of GE crops, you have no less than two potentially hazardous factors to contend with, glyphosate toxicity being just one part of the equation.

As discussed above, glyphosate has a number of devastating biological effects. So much so that it may very well be one of the most important factors in the development of a wide variety of modern diseases and conditions, including autism. In summary, these detrimental effects include:

Nutritional deficiencies, as glyphosate immobilizes certain nutrients and alters the nutritional composition of the treated crop
Disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (these are essential amino acids not produced in your body that must be supplied via your diet)
Increased toxin exposure (this includes high levels of glyphosate and formaldehyde in the food itself)
Impairment of sulfate transport and sulfur metabolism; sulfate deficiency
Systemic toxicity—a side effect of extreme disruption of microbial function throughout your body; beneficial microbes in particular, allowing for overgrowth of pathogens
Gut dysbiosis (imbalances in gut bacteria, inflammation, leaky gut, food allergies such as gluten intolerance)
Enhancement of damaging effects of other food-borne chemical residues and environmental toxins as a result of glyphosate shutting down the function of detoxifying enzymes
Creation of ammonia (a byproduct created when certain microbes break down glyphosate), which can lead to brain inflammation associated with autism and Alzheimer's disease

How to Protect Yourself and Your Family from This Systemic Poison

It's important to understand that the glyphosate sprayed on conventional and genetically engineered crops actually becomes systemic throughout the plant, so it cannot be washed off. It's inside the plant. For example, genetically engineered corn has been found to contain 13 ppm of glyphosate, compared to zero in non-GMO corn.

At 13 ppm, GMO corn contains more than 18 times the "safe" level of glyphosate set by the EPA. Organ damage in animals has occurred at levels as low as 0.1 ppm. If that's not reason enough to become a label reader to avoid anything with corn in it, such as corn oil or high fructose corn syrup, I don't know what is.

You'd also be wise to stop using Roundup around your home, where children and pets can come into contact with it simply by walking across the area.

Until the US requires genetically engineered (GE) foods to be labelled, the only way you can avoid GE ingredients is to make whole, fresh organic foods the bulk of your diet, and to only buy 100% USDA certified organic processed foods. Meats need to be grass-fed or pastured to make sure the animals were not fed GE corn or soy feed.

Last but not least, do not confuse the "natural" label with organic standards.

The natural label is not based on any standards and is frequently misused by sellers of GE products. 

Growers and manufacturers of organic products bearing the USDA seal, on the other hand, have to meet the strictest standards of any of the currently available organic labels. In order to qualify as organic, a product must be grown and processed using organic farming methods that recycle resources and promote biodiversity. 

Crops must be grown without synthetic pesticides, bioengineered genes, petroleum-based fertilizers, or sewage sludge-based fertilizers.

What Are GMOs?

GMOs are a product of genetic engineering, meaning their genetic makeup has been altered to induce a variety of “unique” traits to crops, such as making them drought-resistant or giving them “more nutrients.” GMO proponents claim that genetic engineering is “safe and beneficial,” and that it advances the agricultural industry. Some scientists claim that GMOs help ensure the global food supply and sustainability. 

Genetic engineering is NOT the safe and beneficial technology that it is touted to be.

The Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA)—Monsanto’s Evil Twin—is pulling out all the stops to keep everyone in the dark about what’s in your food. For nearly two decades, Monsanto and corporate agribusiness have exercised near-dictatorial control over American agriculture. 

For example, Monsanto has made many claims that glyphosate in Roundup is harmless to animals and humans. However, recently the World Health Organization (WHO) had their research team test glyphosate and have labeled it a probable carcinogen.

Public opinion around the biotech industry's contamination of our food supply and destruction of our environment has reached a tipping point.

Sunday, 14 June 2015

Roundup Ready - Bt-Toxin and GMOs - A Dangerous Trinity That Encourages Gluten Intolerance and Celiac Disease

Roundup Ready - Bt-Toxin and GMOs

A Dangerous Trinity That Encourages Gluten Intolerance and Celiac Disease

Stes de Necker

In 2012, at least 283.5 million pounds of glyphosate (the active ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup Ready) was used in U.S. alone. For those who are unconcerned about the environmental or human impacts, this number may not be cause for alarm. But for the millions of people who have developed an array of health issues linked to gluten sensitivity, the assault of foods laden with glyphosate and Bt-toxin is a critical issue.

The rise of gluten intolerance

It’s estimated that some 20 million people in the United States are classified as non-celiac gluten-sensitive, which is approximately 6-7% of the general population. However, Dr. Ford, a pediatrician in New Zealand and author of The Gluten Syndrome, and Dr. Fine, a gastroenterologist, both believe the rate of gluten intolerance could be closer to 50% of the population.

“There are so many people who are sick,” Dr. Ford says. “At least 10% are gluten-sensitive, and it’s probably more like 30%. I was sticking my neck out years ago when I said at least 10% of the population is gluten-sensitive. My medical colleagues were saying gluten sensitivity didn’t exist. We’ll probably find it’s more than 50% when we finally settle on a number.”

Moreover, a 2009 study Increased Prevalence and Mortality in Undiagnosed Celiac Disease was published in the journal Gastroenterology, which found that there has been a four-fold increase of undiagnosed celiac disease in the U.S. since the 1950’s.

Celiac disease is a serious autoimmune disorder resulting from the ingestion of gluten containing grains (wheat, spelt, rye, barley and cross-contaminated oats). Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, skin rashes, anemia and depression. Associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies, it can cause reproductive issues along with increased risk of cancer, thyroid disease and kidney failure.

What has happened in the last sixty years that could account for such a sharp increase in gluten intolerance and celiac disease?

Glyphosate and the gut

One piece of the puzzle lies with the Roundup Ready herbicide. GreenMedInfo explains how glyphosate causes an imbalance in gut flora that can lead to gluten intolerance:

“Gluten-sensitive individuals, and especially those with celiac disease, also commonly have an imbalance in their gut flora. The reason that caesarean section increases risk 6 and breastfeeding decreases risk for gluten sensitivity is likely due to their respective effects on microbial balance in the infant’s gut.

Glyphosate used on GM crops is not only an herbicide, but also a potent antibiotic. Even with minimal exposure, glyphosate can significantly reduce the population of beneficial gut bacteria and promote the overgrowth of harmful strains. An overgrowth of harmful bacteria can promote inflammation, leaky gut, and immune reactions, all of which are linked to gluten-related disorders.”

Genetically modified crops and the Bt-toxin

Glyphosate isn’t the only element in GMO agriculture that’s problematic — the Bt-toxin spliced into GMO crops like corn and cotton is also of concern. A potent insecticide that kills pests by punching holes in their digestive tracts, Bt-toxin punctures human cells too. It survives digestion and has been detected in 93% of pregnant women who were tested, as well as 80% of their unborn children.

On top of that, Bt-toxin can trigger the immune system in unhealthy ways. According to the Institute for Responsible Technology:

“When mice were exposed to Bt-toxin, they not only mounted an immune response to it directly, but they subsequently reacted to foods that had not formally triggered a response. There was something about the Bt-toxin that primed the immune system to become reactive to other, once benign, foods. If humans exposed to Bt-toxin react in a similar manner, eating GM corn could directly lead to the development of gluten or other food sensitivities.”

Both the Bt-toxin and glyphosate damage the microvilli lining the intestinal tract in animal tests. This same flattening of the microvilli is also seen with those who are sensitive to gluten or suffer from celiac disease.

Research indicates that the Bt-toxin, glyphosate and GMO crops in general are associated with the following conditions, which can cause or aggravate intolerance to gluten:
Leaky gut syndrome
Compromised gut bacteria
Autoimmune disorders
Weakened digestion
Impairment of the intestinal wall

Additionally, a study published in Interdisciplinary Toxicology established a connection between the rise in celiac disease in North America and Europe to glyphosate exposure. The researchers involved in the study found:

“Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate’s strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate’s known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate.

Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest.” The team adds, “We argue that the practice of “ripening” sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods.”

Article sources:

Cannabis Annihilates Cancer - Over 100 Scientific Studies Agree

Cannabis Annihilates Cancer

Over 100 Scientific Studies Agree

Stes de Necker
Written by Carolanne Wright

The article is about cannabidoil – OIL. Nothing to do with the smoking variety

Considering that up until about 85 years ago, cannabis oil was used around the world to treat a variety of diseases, including cancer, it is not surprising that the phasing out of cannabis to treat illness coincided with the rise of pharmaceutical companies.

Rick Simpson, a medical marijuana activist, is on a crusade to help others heal. He regards cannabis as the most medicinally active plant on the face of the earth, and shared this apparent miracle with others — completely free of charge. He now has thousands of testimonials from those who were healed from ‘incurable’ disease to back up his claims ~ that cannabis annihilates cancer.

For the naysayers out there who are still not convinced about the effectiveness of cannabis for curing cancer, the astounding healing attributes of the plant are well documented by a wealth of peer-reviewed studies.

Breast cancer

A study in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics explored the relationship between the use of cannabidiol (CBD) and the subsequent down regulation of breast cancer tumor aggressiveness. The researchers concluded that CBD represents the first nontoxic agent to decrease the aggressiveness of metastic breast cancer cells in vivo.

Several additional studies support these findings, including “Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis” and “Cannabinoids: a new hope for breast cancer therapy?

Furthermore, the journal PLoS One reports further evidence of how cannabinoids modulate breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting specific receptors.

Colon cancer

As published in Pharmacological Research:

“Studies on epithelial cells have shown that cannabinoids exert antiproliferative, antimetastatic and apoptotic effects as well as reducing cytokine release and promoting wound healing. In vivo, cannabinoids – via direct or indirect activation of CB(1) and/or CB(2) receptors – exert protective effects in well-established models of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer.”

The team concluded that the administration of cannabinoids “may be a promising strategy to counteract intestinal inflammation and colon cancer.”

Moreover, research in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology established that colon cancer cell lines were strongly affected by cannabinoids.


Cannabis was shown to induce cytotoxicity in leukemia cell lines, according the the journalBlood:

“We have shown that THC is a potent inducer of apoptosis, even at 1 x IC(50) (inhibitory concentration 50%) concentrations and as early as 6 hours after exposure to the drug. These effects were seen in leukemic cell lines (CEM, HEL-92, and HL60) as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.”

It also did not appear that the cannabis was simply aiding other chemo drugs — it was independently bringing about results with the active compound THC responsible for cancer cell death in vitro.

Likewise, a study in the Molecular Pharmacology Journal found that non psychoactive cannabidiol dramatically induced apoptosis (cell death) in leukemia cells. “Together, the results from this study reveal that cannabidiol, acting through CB2 and regulation of Nox4 and p22(phox) expression, may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia.”

Two additional studies, “p38 MAPK is involved in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukemia cells” and “Gamma-irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells“, also demonstrated the effectiveness of cannabis in promoting leukemia cell death.


Research published in the paper Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acidsfound that cannabinoid compounds play a vital role in modulating the immune system to improve the outcome of a cancer diagnosis. In short, the team believes “[t]he experimental evidence reviewed in this article argues in favor of the therapeutic potential of these compounds in immune disorders and cancer.”

Moreover, the study Cannabinoids and the immune system confirms that cannabimimetic agents have substantial effects on natural killer cells, thereby providing therapeutic usefulness in reducing tumor growth and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, cannabis demonstrates a “subtle but significant role in the regulation of immunity and that this role can eventually be exploited in the management of human disease.”

Cervical cancer

Uterine cervical cancer cells are significantly influenced by cannabis as well. Published in Gynecologic Oncology, the research team discovered that the compound induced apoptosis in cervical carcinoma (CxCa) cell lines.


The most deadly form of skin cancer, melanoma has relatively few options of treatment beyond prevention and early detection. With this in mind, the findings of the study Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma are of particular note. In animal tests, cannabinoids encouraged cancer cell death, while decreasing growth, proliferation and metastasis of melanoma cells.

Non melanoma skin cancers also respond well to cannabinoids. According to research in the Journal of Clinical Investigation:

“Local administration of [cannabinoids] induced a considerable growth inhibition of malignant tumors generated by inoculation of epidermal tumor cells into nude mice. Cannabinoid-treated tumors showed an increased number of apoptotic cells. This was accompanied by impairment of tumor vascularization, as determined by altered blood vessel morphology and decreased expression of proangiogenic factors (VEGF, placental growth factor, and angiopoietin 2). … These results support a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of skin tumors.”

These are just a few examples — among hundreds — that demonstrate the effectiveness of cannabis in eradicating cancer without adverse side-effects. Additionally, the following documentary explores the history and modern uses of cannabis to heal serious diseases such as cancer, AIDS, Crohn’s disease & more:

Scientific Studies from the National Institute of Health

If you’re still in doubt regarding the effectiveness of cannabis for healing cancer, have a look at these 100+ scientific studies from the National Institute of Health:

Cannabis kills tumor cells

Uterine, testicular, and pancreatic cancers

Brain cancer

Mouth and throat cancer

Breast cancer

Lung cancer

Prostate cancer

Blood cancer

Skin cancer

Liver cancer

Cannabis cancer cures (general)

Cancers of the head and neck

Cholangiocarcinoma cancer


Cannabis partially/fully induced cancer cell death

Translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma


Cannabis kills cancer cells


Thyroid carcinoma

Colon cancer

Intestinal inflammation and cancer

Cannabinoids in health and disease

Cannabis inhibits cancer cell invasion

Please pass this information on to as many of your friends and contacts.

Friday, 12 June 2015




Stes de Necker

What will it cost to make the world debt free?

Let me share the next simple scenario with you:

A businessman once visited a small town to look for business, so he went to the hotel first and explained to the owner of the hotel the purpose of his visit. Because he was not sure what he may find, he asked the hotel owner to reserve a room for him for in the event he will have to stay over for the night. So he gave the hotel owner 50$ as a deposit on the room.   

After the businessman has left, the hotel owner remembered that he still owed the butcher 50$ for meat that he bought from him the previous day and thinking that the business man will in all probability sleep over the evening, he took the 50$ and went to pay the butcher.

The butcher in turn owed the general dealer 50$ for some cleaning material that he bought from him and decided to go and pay the general dealer. 

The general dealer owed the chemist 50$ for some medication he bought from him, so he then went and paid the chemist.

The chemist remembered he still owed the local attorney 50$ for work the attorney did for him and he went and paid the attorney.

When the attorney received the 50$ he remembered that he still owed the hotel owner 50$ on his bar tab that he didn’t paid the last time he went drinking there and decided to go and pay the hotel owner the 50$ he owed him.

As the attorney left, the business man came back to the hotel and told the hotel owner that he is really sorry but that there is just no business to be found in the town and can he please have his 50$ back so he can leave and go sleep in another town nearby.

So the hotel owner, not wanting to be difficult or to upset the businessman, gave the businessman back his 50$ and the guy left!

Simple, isn’t it......!?

...or isn't it .....

Tuesday, 9 June 2015

Why are planets round - Isostatic adjustment- Thermal Equilibrium- Hydrostatic equilibrium.

Why are planets round

Isostatic adjustment

Thermal Equilibrium

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Stes de Necker

Isostatic adjustment

Planets are round because their gravitational field acts as though it originates from the center of the body and pulls everything toward it.

With its large body and internal heating from radioactive elements, a planet behaves like a fluid, and over long periods of time succumbs to the gravitational pull from its center of gravity. The only way to get all the mass as close to planet's center of gravity as possible is to form a sphere.

The technical name for this process is "isostatic adjustment." 

With much smaller bodies, such as asteroids (50 to 500 miles) the gravitational pull is too weak to overcome the asteroid's mechanical strength. As a result, these bodies do not form spheres. Rather they maintain irregular, fragmentary shapes.

Thermal Equilibrium

Thermal equilibrium is the tendency of thermal energy to flow so that temperature differences are equalized. Equilibrium applies to gravity, too.

Every part of a planet’s surface has a gravitational potential energy. This quantity can be expressed as the product of the object’s mass (m), the acceleration of gravity (g), and the height of the object (h):
PEGravity = m * g * h

So potential energy increases with the mass of the planet (because a more massive planet will have a larger value of g), and with the distance from the planet’s center.

Gravity pulls all the parts of an object toward its center of mass.

Gravity always works to minimize the potential energy of all parts of a planet. High places have a larger gravitational potential energy, and are pulled downward more strongly than low places.

Take a large tray and cover it with sand or gravel heaped into "mountains." If you shake the tray, the sand will quickly settle to a flat surface where the gravitational potential energy is the same everywhere. This is an example of equilibrium.

Large bodies in the solar system have enough mass so that their strong gravity forces their surfaces to have the same potential energy everywhere. The result is the most symmetric shape possible: a sphere.

The Earth is as round and smooth as a billiard ball.

Small asteroids, however, do not have enough gravity to overcome the strength of the rock they are made of. So they have irregular shapes.

Asteroid Ida with its tiny moonlet Dactyl

Hydrostatic equilibrium

Planets are round also because their mass is large enough to trigger hydrostatic equilibrium.  Hydrostatic equilibrium is where an objects own gravity pulls high places down and pushes low places up until all pressures are equalized and the object is round.  

It is very much like a bubble.  The pressure on the inside and outside of a round bubble are the same. 

If a part of the bubble is sticking out, there is more pressure on the outside of the part sticking out than on the inside of the part sticking out.  That pressure pushes the bubble until it is not sticking out any more.  It doesn't keep pushing on that part, because then there would be more pressure on the inside of the bubble than the outside, and the part being pushed in would be pushed back out again.