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Wednesday, 23 May 2018

VERSKANSDE WAARHEDE VAN DIE OU TESTAMENT - OORSIG VAN DIE MANUSKRIP





VERSKANSDE WAARHEDE VAN DIE OU TESTAMENT

OORSIG VAN DIE MANUSKRIP

Stes de Necker



Die primêre oogmerk met die skrywe van die drieledige werk, “Die Verborge Waarhede van die Ou Testament” , “Versteekte Skatte van die Nuwe Testament” en “Sola Scriptura - Die Skrif alleen is genoeg”, is nie om ʼn wetenskaplike verklaring of ʼn Teologiese seining oor die onderwerpe wat bespreek word te gee nie. Nog minder is dit bedoel om die Bybel wetenskaplik korrek te probeer bewys, of om die wetenskap, Bybels korrek te probeer bewys nie. Die bedoeling is bloot om, aan die hand van bestaande Bybelse gegewens en bewese wetenskaplike resultate, die Bybel vanuit ʼn suiwer pragmatiese perspektief te benader en gevolglik praktiese riglyne vir ons alledaagse uitlewing van ons Christenskap, daarvolgens te bepaal. 

Soos derduisende kinders wêreldwyd, het ek ook as kleuter met verwondering en verbasing geluister na die verhale van die Skepping; Adam en Eva in die Tuin van Eden; die Sondvloed; Noag en die Ark; die toring van Babel; die uittog uit Egipte; die kruising van die Rooisee, en die land Kanaän waar druiwetrosse so groot geword het dat twéé mans dit met ʼn drastok moes dra!

Die groot hervormer Martin Luther het by geleentheid gesê: “Die Bybel is nie oud of modern nie; Dit is ewig”

Vir elkeen wat vir raad en advies in die Bybel soek, is Luther se woorde van besondere betekenis.  Dit herinner ons elke keer dat die beloftes wat God eeue gelede aan die stamvaders van Israel gemaak het, nie saam met die Ou Verbond verval het nie; inteendeel, Jesus Christus het juis na hierdie aarde toe gekom om deur Sy lyding en dood, vir eens en vir altyd God se beloftes van die Ou Testament aan ons te herbevestig. 

Regdeur die geskiedenis was die Bybel nog altyd korrek. Elke voorspelling van die Ou Testament en elke voorspelling wat Jesus in die Nuwe Testament gemaak het, het waar geword presies soos dit voorspel is. Die Bybel is voorwaar die enigste ware Woord van God en ons moet nooit twyfel aan die betroubaarheid en korrektheid daarvan nie.

Tweedens het ek probeer aantoon dat die Bybel nie uit twee verskillende boeke, naamlik die Ou- en die Nuwe Testament bestaan nie, maar dat dit eerder as een aaneenlopende heilsgeskiedenis gesien moet word, wat onder en tydens die bestaan van twee afsonderlike verbonde, plaasgevind het. Ons kan die Nuwe Testament net verstaan en waardeer as ons die geskiedenis van die Ou Testament ken.

Augustinus het by geleentheid die volgende van die Ou- en Nuwe Testamente gesê: “ The New is in the Old concealed; The Old is in the New revealed.” 

As dit nie vir die waarhede van die Ou Testament was nie, sou ons nooit die skatte van die Nuwe Testament, kon raaksien en waardeer nie.

In Deel III, “Sola Scriptura - Die Skrif alleen is genoeg”, kyk ons na veertien toepassings hoe ons as Christene, hierdie praktiese (pragmatiese) siening van die Bybel, daagliks kan toepas en uitleef sonder om bekommerd te wees dat ons die Bybel “miskien nie reg verstaan nie!”

Ons is egter nie almal dieselfde nie, en dit is belangrik dat elke mens gemaklik moet wees met dit waarmee hy assosieer. As die beskouings in hierdie boeke nie by jou aanklank vind nie, laat dit maar verbygaan. Vir elkeen met wie hierdie pragmatiese benadering egter resoneer, is dit my opregte begeerte dat hierdie boeke die nodige inspirasie sal bied om die Bybel meer ondersoekend, en met opwinding en verwagting te lees.

 Aan diesulkes wil ek sê: “Welkom in die wêreld van die Pragmatis!”
 
Die doel verder met die insluiting van die verskillende gedetailleerde bylaes soos bv. die wet van Moses (Mosaïese wette) en die geloofsbelydenisse en kerkordes van die Afrikaanse susterkerke, is tweërlei. Eerstens om vir die leser, in één enkele bundel, so ʼn wyd moontlike  verwysings-raamwerk te bied vir die aannames wat ons as gelowiges soms maak en tweedens om, veral vir ons jongmense, (en moontlik ook ʼn paar van die oueres!) ʼn beter begrip te gee van die regulatoriese raamwerk (protokol) waarbinne die Gereformeerde Susters Kerke, juridies, verplig is om te funksioneer.

Die Belydenis en Kerkorde van die Kerk waaraan jy behoort, is in wese niks anders as die “grondwet” of “konstitusie” van die Kerk-“vereniging” (denominasie) waarvan jy  lid is. 

Ek vertrou van harte dat hierdie drie boeke vir elke leser ʼn praktiese en verstaanbare perspektief op die Bybel sal gee en dat hierdie perspektief sal bydrae om ʼn diepere waardering en meer betekenisvolle begrip van die Bybel te kweek. 

Alle eer aan God.
Stes de Necker                                                                                     

Thursday, 17 May 2018

VERSKANSDE WAARHEDE VAN DIE BYBEL - KOMMENTARE











KOMmentare

“Stes de Necker moet ernstig en met aandag gelees word

Die drieledige werk van Stes de Necker naamlik die “Verborge waarhede van die Ou Testament”, “Versteekte skatte van die Nuwe Testament” en Sola Scriptura – Die Skrif alleen is Genoeg, verteenwoordig ‘n deeglike poging deur ‘n nie-teoloog en “gewone” lidmaat. Sedert die erkenning van die algemene priesterskap van die gelowiges in die Kerkhervorming van die 1500’s, is daar waardering vir lidmate wat vanuit die kerkbank saampraat oor Bybelkwessies.

Stes se bydrae is verantwoord, goed nagevors en lesenswaardig. Kernprobleme en kernwaarhede – vir vandag – word aangesny: die ontstaan van die Bybel, die Bybel en die ouderdom van die aarde, God se Raadsplan, uitverkiesing, wie is my naaste?, God-Drieënig, bestaan die hel?, en selfs Openbaring.

Stes bied hierdie werk nederig aan en sonder ‘n soeke na eie belang. Hy wil eerder die debat stimuleer as strem. Sy hantering van die NG Kerk se belydensskrifte en ander dokumente maak die prentjie meer volledig en verdien vermelding.”

Prof Piet Strauss.
(Voormalig) Moderator van die Algemene Sinode van die NG Kerk 
Januarie 2012.

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“Dit is 'n uiters omvangryke boek en getuig van breë navorsing wat oor 'n wye verskeidenheid onderwerpe en kwessies van die Bybel gedoen is. Die opmerkings en kommentaar oor hierdie sake in die Bybel lees interessant en lesers sal dit geniet. Dit is sake en onderwerpe wat nie aldag in die gesigsveld van die gewone leser/lidmaat kom nie. Dat dit baie stof tot nadenke laat, is verseker. Hierdie boek is veral vir die fynproewer denkende mens bedoel.”

Danny Fourie
Publikasiehoof
Bybel-Media (voorheen Bybelkor)

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“Wanneer teoloë oor aktuele vraagstukke begin debatteer, is dit goed. Wanneer gelowiges wie nie formele teologiese opleiding het nie, oor Bybelse sake begin praat en skryf, is dit baie beter, veral wanneer hul navorsing omvattend is en aansluit by vrae wat gereeld deur die man op straat gevra word.

Hierdie boek is so ‘n boek, vir die man op straat, maar ek is oortuig ook vir vele dominees. In my eie bediening moes ek gereeld die vraagstukke wat in hierdie boek ontleed en behandel word, aan lidmate en selfs tieners verduidelik. Daar is by talle gelowiges ‘n fundamentalistiese aanslag wat daartoe aanleiding gee dat hulle in ‘n geloofskrisis wil beland (selfs anderdenkendes verdag wil maak!) wanneer veral Ou Testamentiese ‘historiese’ waarhede vanuit ‘n ander perspektief beskou word. Die Bybel wil geensins ‘n histories-ekskansde Waarhede sakte handboek wees nie. En wanneer sekere aspekte anders interpreteer word en verklaar word, is dit geen aanslag op die Christelike geloof nie! ‘Verskansde Waarhede van die Bybel’ is ‘n vars uitkyk op talle omstrede sake, wat waag om krities te kyk na sogenaamde ‘heilige koeie’ in Bybeluitleg.

Nog ‘n belangrike saak is dat hierdie boek ‘n mens stimuleer en aanmoedig om dieper en verder te dink. Vir my is in die kommunikasiemedia ‘n deurslaggewende faktor dat die leser/hoorder se soeke na kennis en verklarings sodanig geprikkel sal word dat hulle sal begin vrae vra, ‘elaborate’, self verder sal navorsing doen. Hierdie boek, glo ek, sal juis dít doen vir lesers.  Ek is oortuig dat ‘Verskansde Waarhede’ van groot hulp sal wees vir beide dominee én lidmaat. Dis nie swaar akademiese taal en redenerings wat verveel nie, maar bied teologies-Bybelse waarhede aan as genotvol en interessant.”

Dr. Wollie Grobler, leraar
NG Klipkerk
Bloemfontein-Noord


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Email
sdnsdn0@gmail.com

Wednesday, 16 May 2018

VERSKANSDE WAARHEDE VAN DIE BYBEL




verskansde WAARHEDE VAN DIE BYBEL





                                                            











     STES DE NECKER

Stefanus Ignatius de Necker is gebore op 4 April 1947 in Bloemfontein in die Vrystaat.

Na matriek studeer hy aan die Universiteit van die Vrystaat en verwerf STR in 1969.

In 1973 word hy aangestel as Ouditeur van die Suid Vrystaat Ontwikkelings Raad, en in 1977 sluit hy by die internasionale rekenaar firma, ICL Ltd. aan, en kwalifiseer as programmeerder, stelselontleder en stelselontwerper.

In 1978 word hy aangestel as Finansiële Kontrole beampte van die firma en in 1984 behaal hy sy graad in Bestuurswetenskap en Sake Leiding aan die Sentrale Universiteit van Tegnologie.

Gedurende 1979 word lidmaatskap van die Internasionale Atlas Klub vir top presteerders, aan hom toegeken.

In 1995 word hy aangestel as Arbeidsverhoudinge Adviseur van die Staatsdiens Kommissie, en in 1997 behaal hy sy Honneurs graad in Arbeidsreg (LLA) aan die Rand Afrikaanse Universiteit.

In 2000 word hy bevorder tot Regsadviseur van die Departement van Landbou in die Vrystaat, en in 2002 word hy aangestel as Asst. Direkteur Generaal van die Departement.

In 2006 tree hy af met pensioen.

In Maart 2013 word Lidmaatskap (Fellowship) van die New Westminster College (Vancouver, Kanada) aan hom toegeken en in Junie 2013 word hy aangestel as Diplomatieke Ambassadeur van die NCPC van Kanada.

Stes, soos hy algemeen bekend is, is getroud met Janelle (nè Kirsten) en die egpaar het twee kinders Ilezél en Stefan.



VOORWOORD

Die bedoeling van hierdie drieledige werk, “Die Verborge Waarhede van die Ou Testament” , “Versteekte Skatte van die Nuwe Testament” en “Sola Scriptura - Die Skrif alleen is genoeg”, is nie om ʼn wetenskaplike verklaring of ʼn Teologiese seining oor die onderwerpe wat bespreek word te gee nie. Nog minder is dit bedoel om die Bybel wetenskaplik korrek te probeer bewys, of om die wetenskap, Bybels korrek te probeer bewys nie. Die bedoeling is bloot om, aan die hand van bestaande Bybelse gegewens en bewese wetenskaplike resultate, die Bybel vanuit ʼn suiwer pragmatiese perspektief te benader en gevolglik praktiese riglyne vir ons alledaagse uitlewing van ons Christenskap, daarvolgens te bepaal. 

Soos derduisende kinders wêreldwyd, het ek ook as kleuter met verwondering en verbasing geluister na die verhale van die Skepping; Adam en Eva in die Tuin van Eden; die Sondvloed; Noag en die Ark; die toring van Babel; die uittog uit Egipte; die kruising van die Rooisee, en die land Kanaän waar druiwetrosse so groot geword het dat twéé mans dit met ʼn drastok moes dra!

Eers na my aftrede in 2006, het ek die geleentheid gekry om die navorsing te doen wat tot die skryf van hierdie boek gelei het. Aangesien ek nóg ʼn teoloog; nóg ʼn wetenskaplike is, het ek my gereeld in vreemde gebiedswaters bevind. Ek is egter daarvan oortuig dat die Heilige Gees my op wonderbaarlike wyse gelei het na die feite en waarhede waarna in die hierdie boek verwys word. Ek moet erken dat baie van hierdie feite  vir my net so ʼn openbaring was!

Die groot hervormer Martin Luther het by geleentheid gesê: “Die Bybel is nie oud of modern nie; Dit is ewig”

Vir elkeen wat vir raad en advies in die Bybel soek, is Luther se woorde van besondere betekenis.  Dit herinner ons elke keer dat die beloftes wat God eeue gelede aan die stamvaders van Israel gemaak het, nie saam met die Ou Verbond verstryk nie; inteendeel, Jesus Christus het juis na hierdie aarde toe gekom om deur Sy lyding en dood, vir eens en vir altyd God se beloftes van die Ou Testament aan ons te herbevestig. 

Regdeur die geskiedenis was die Bybel nog altyd korrek. Elke voorspelling van die Ou Testament en elke voorspelling wat Jesus in die Nuwe Testament gemaak het, het waar geword presies soos dit voorspel is. Die Bybel is voorwaar die enigste ware Woord van God en ons moet nooit twyfel aan die betroubaarheid en korrektheid daarvan nie.

Tweedens het ek probeer aantoon dat die Bybel nie uit twee verskillende boeke, naamlik
die Ou- en die Nuwe Testament bestaan nie, maar dat dit eerder as een aaneenlopende heilsgeskiedenis gesien moet word, wat onder en tydens die bestaan van twee afsonderlike verbonde, plaasgevind het. Ons kan die Nuwe Testament net verstaan en waardeer as ons die geskiedenis van die Ou Testament ken. Augustinus het by geleentheid die volgende van die Ou- en Nuwe Testamente gesê: “ The New is in the Old concealed; The Old is in the New revealed.” 

As dit nie vir die waarhede van die Ou Testament was nie, sou ons nooit die skatte van die Nuwe Testament, kon raaksien en waardeer nie.

In Deel III, “Sola Scriptura - Die Skrif alleen is genoeg”, kyk ons na veertien toepassings hoe ons as Christene, hierdie praktiese (pragmatiese) siening van die Bybel, daagliks kan toepas en uitleef sonder om bekommerd te wees dat ons die Bybel “miskien nie reg verstaan nie!”

Ek vertrou van harte dat hierdie drie boeke vir elke leser ʼn praktiese en verstaanbare perspektief op die Bybel sal gee en dat hierdie perspektief sal bydrae om ʼn diepere waardering en meer betekenisvolle begrip van die Bybel te kweek. 

Ons is egter nie almal dieselfde nie, en dit is belangrik dat elke mens gemaklik moet wees met dit waarmee hy assosieer. As die beskouings in hierdie boeke nie by jou aanklank vind nie, laat dit maar verbygaan. Vir elkeen met wie hierdie pragmatiese benadering egter resoneer, is dit my opregte begeerte dat hierdie boeke die nodige inspirasie sal bied om die Bybel meer ondersoekend, en met opwinding en verwagting te lees. Aan diesulkes wil ek sê: “Welkom in die wêreld van die Pragmatis!”
Die doel met die insluiting van die verskillende gedetailleerde bylaes soos bv. die wet van Moses (Mosaïese wette) en die geloofsbelydenisse en kerkordes van die Afrikaanse susterkerke, is tweërlei. Eerstens om vir die leser, in één enkele bundel, so ʼn wyd moontlike  verwysings-raamwerk te bied vir die aannames wat ons as gelowiges soms maak en tweedens om, veral vir ons jongmense, (en moontlik ook ʼn paar van die oueres!) ʼn beter begrip te gee van die regulatoriese raamwerk (protokol) waarbinne die Gereformeerde Susters Kerke, juridies, verplig is om te funksioneer. Die Belydenis en Kerkorde van die Kerk waaraan jy behoort, is in wese niks anders as die “grondwet” of “konstitusie” van die Kerk-“vereniging” (denominasie) waarvan jy  lid is.    

In hierdie trilogie word daar deurgaans terug verwys na die Bybel, so hou maar jou Bybel byderhand wanneer jy hierdie boeke lees!  Tensy anders aangedui verwys alle aanhalings uit die Bybel na die Nuwe Vertaling (1983) van die Afrikaanse Bybel.  

Alle eer aan God.

Stes de Necker                                                                                                          30 Maart 2011




INDELING VAN DIE BOEK


DEEL i
VERBORGE WAARHEDE VAN DIE OU TESTAMEN           6

ONTSTAAN VAN DIE MENSDOM ~ VANAF DIE SKEPPING TOT DIE MENS           
VAN RAMESES TOT JERIGO ~UITTOG UIT EGIPTE EN DIE TOG DEUR DIE ROOISEE
GESLAGSREGISTERS VAN DIE OU TESTAMENT ~ FEITE UIT DIE GESKIEDENIS WAT 
DIE BYBEL
SE WAARHEDE BEVESTIG
WISKUNDE VAN DIE PENTATEUG ~DIE GETALLE VAN NUMERI
DIE SONDE EN BEGENADIGING VAN ISRAEL ~ LESSE UIT DIE BOEK RIGTERS EN DIE 
VOORSKRIFTE
VAN DIE LEVITIKUS                                                                                         
ONTSTAAN VAN DIE BYBEL                                                                                                                    SAMEVATTING  EN BETEKENS VAN DIE BOEK JOB

DEEL ii
Versteekte skatte van die nuwe testament     433

Twee Millennia van Joodse vervolging - Die Uitverkiesing - Die Geskiedenis van die 
kerk van Jesus Wie is my naaste en hoe met ek hom/haar liefhê - 
Die Goddelike Drie-eenheid -
Bestaan daar nog iets soos die hel - Die geboorte van Jesus en Sy kinderjare - 
Die Heilige Gees
Openbaring - Die Sakramente - Respek vir die Bedienaars van die Woord – 
Kruisdood - Dwalinge van die moderne tyd - Judas en Pilatus -
 Psalms ~ Liedboek of Profesie – Wonderwerke -      
Siele, Geeste, Demone en dergelike dinge - Samevatting
“Bybel bekoor met eenvoud”

                         DEEL iiI
(SLOTSOM)
SOLA SCRIPTURA – DIE SKRIF ALLEEN IS GENOE       677
       
DIE BYBEL  ~  HANDBOEK OF REËLBOEK - MORALISME VERSUS GENADE 
- GEBED, GELOOF EN BESKIKKING - BEGINSELS EN GELOOF - 
BEKERING EN WEDERGEBOORTE - VERSOEKINGS EN BEPROEWINGS – 
TELEURSTELLINGS - SKULDGEVOEL EN SELFVERWYT - 
DEPRESSIE EN SELFMOORD - OORDEEL OF VEROORDEEL - 
HOEVEEL HEMELE IS DAAR - VERLOWING
HOE LANK NOG KAN DIE AARDE IE MENS SE AANSLAG AFWEER - 
VRAE WAT JONGMENSE BAIE KEER VRA              

                

iNLEIDING DEEL i

Eeue reeds soek die mens na antwoorde op die tergende vrae soos: “Wie was Adam?”   “Waar kom die mens vandaan?”  “Was Adam regtig die eerste mens op aarde?”  “Waar het die kruising van die Rooisee plaasgevind?” ”Wanneer het die aarde ontstaan?”  ”Wanneer het die heelal ontstaan?”  “Wat was daar voor die heelal ontstaan het?” ens.

Na al die soeke op antwoorde vir hierdie, en talle ander kwelvrae, moet die mens erken dat, desnieteenstaande die vordering wat daar op wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en intellektuele terrein gemaak is, die mens nog steeds niks weet van die Goddelike terrein nie.

Steeds het die mens nog geen persepsie van die grootsheid van die skepping en die ontsaglike grootsheid van God nie. Steeds weet ons nie wat lewe is nie. Wat is intelligensie? Wat is bewussyn? Wat is waarheid? Wat is werklikheid? Met ons beperkte verstandelike vermoë, vasgevang in die beperkende dimensies van tyd, ruimte en oorsaak en gevolg, is die mens eenvoudig nie in staat om hierdie begrippe te verstaan of te begryp nie. Die gevolg is dat menige wetenskaplike teorieë en selfs teologiese sienings, God eerder tot ons bestaansfeer probeer “aftrek”, om Hom sodoende meer verstaanbaar en meer “hanteerbaar” te maak. Dan kan ons ook ons mensgemaakte teorieë en versinsels, makliker formuleer en verdedig.    

Met betrekking tot die ontstaan van die mensdom, is dit egter insiggewend dat wanneer ons die natuur-wetenskaplike teorieë oor die skepping en die ontstaan van die kosmos en die mensdom aan die een kant, en die Bybelse weergawe en gegewens oor die skepping en ontstaan van die mens Adam aan die anderkant, prakties en sistematies ontleed, die Bybel en die wetenskap verstommend in ooreenstemming met mekaar is!

In sy boek: “Die Groot Gedagte – abstrakte weefsel van die kosmos” skryf Gideon Joubert die volgende: “Die wetenskap se terrein is om die natuur te ontdek. God se terrein is die geestelike wêreld, ʼn gebied wat onmoontlik is om met die gereedskap en taal van die wetenskap te ontdek. Laasgenoemde moet deur die hart ondersoek word, en die verstand en die siel…” Dit beteken egter nie dat hierdie twee wêrelde, naamlik God se terrein en die wetenskap se terrein, verskillende wêrelde verteenwoordig nie. Die wêreld van die moderne wetenskap, hoe uiters klein en beperk in vergelyking tot die Goddelike grootsheid dit ook mag wees, is nog altyd deel van God se wêreld! Wetenskaplikes en teoloë kyk miskien vanuit verskillende perspektiewe na dieselfde universele vrae en waarhede en dikwels verskil hulle, maar deur die geskiedenis heen het beide se standpunte mekaar gereeld ontmoet.

Hierdie ooreenkomste bevestig die feit dat die wetenskap en die godsdiens wel langs mekaar kan staan en mekaar kan verryk en verlig. Harmonie tussen die Bybel en die natuurwetenskappe is sekerlik moontlik!

God het die mens ʼn ondersoekende gees gegee en gevolglik kan hy nie anders as om voortdurend te hunker na meer kennis en ʼn beter begrip van sy doel en betekenis op aarde nie. Handelinge 17:27: “God het hulle (die nasies) gemaak om Hom te soek, al sou hulle ook moet rondtas om Hom te vind.”

Die briljante fisikus en wetenskaplike, Galileo, wat in ernstige konflik met die Rooms Katolieke Kerk gekom het oor sy standpunt dat die aarde om die son roteer, het by geleentheid gesê: “I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect, has intended us to forgo their use.”

Ek glo dat God alreeds in sy heilige woord, die meeste antwoorde op ons menslike vrae gegee het. Ons moet dit net soek!  

Reeds in die Middeleeue het die Joodse filosoof Moses Maimonides (1135-1204) geskryf dat die botsing tussen die Bybel en die wetenskap, óf vanweë ʼn gebrek aan wetenskaplike kennis, óf  ʼn foutiewe begrip van die Bybel is. Daar kan net één waarheid wees. Prof. Albert Einstein, sekerlik die grootste wetenskaplike van ons tyd, het by geleentheid gesê: “Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind”

Soos reeds gemeld, word daar in hierdie boek geensins gepoog om die wetenskap Teologies korrek te bewys, of om die Bybel, wetenskaplik korrek te bewys nie. Waar ʼn bevinding ook nie strook met ʼn spesifieke bepaling van die meer algemene belydende geskrifte nie, word so ʼn afwyking spesifiek uitgewys.

Terwyl die Kerkordelike standpunt van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk m.b.t. die Bybel, (soos vervat in Artikel 11 van die Riglyne en Funksionele Besluite) naamlik dat die Bybel nie gesien kan word as ’n eksakte handboek vir historiese of wetenskaplike kennis nie, in beginsel ondersteun word, moet daar ernstig gewaak word dat die hedendaagse teologiese kritiek op die Bybel se historiese korrektheid, nie twyfel of skeptisisme in die geloofwaardigheid van die Ou Testament, veroorsaak nie.

George Ladd, The New Testament and Criticism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1967) sê op
Bld. 16: “The authority of the Word of God is not dependent upon infallible certainty in all matters of history and criticism.”
Die mens kan net met absolute sekerheid (sonder enige twyfel) glo, in dit wat hy sintuiglik kan waarneem, of in die alternatief, as hy dit nie self kan waarneem nie, die feite deur betroubare getuienis bevestig en gestaaf kan word.  Vir die res is alles vir die mens, binne sy persoonlike en unieke verwysingsraamwerk, bloot aanvaarbaar (geloofwaardig) of nie-aanvaarbaar (ongeloofwaardig).
Terwyl die Bybel nog altyd as ʼn “geloofs-boek” gelees moet word, beteken dit sekerlik nie dat die historiese inligting en gegewens wat daarin vervat is, sonder meer as historiese versinsel afgemaak kan word nie.
Om vir die tipiese pragmatis (wat ek glo die meeste van ons is) bloot te sê om maar net te glo, is so goed jy sê vir ʼn regter in ʼn hofsaak om enige getuienis wat aangebied word, maar net goedertrou te aanvaar.
Wanneer ons die Bybel se getuienis (gegewens) vanuit ʼn meer praktiese oogpunt (pragmaties) benader, beteken dit geensins dat die Christelike geloof hierdeur aangeval word nie, inteendeel, dit bied vir ons ʼn soveel breër en ryker siening van die Bybel waardeur ons geloof net verder versterk kan word.
Die Christen gelowige beskik sekerlik ook oor die mees betroubaarste en geloof waardigste getuienis wat ʼn mens op aarde kan kry; Die Heilige Gees. Die Bybel sê vir ons baie duidelik dat die Heilige Gees getuig vir ons, en Sy getuienis is waar.
In Hoofstuk 1 word die vraag bv. gevra, hoe is dit moontlik dat Adam en Eva, op die tydstip toe die slang (Satan) Eva verlei het, kon weet dat hulle sondig, aangesien hulle op daardie stadium nog nie van die vrug van die Boom van kennis, van goed of kwaad (oor reg of verkeerd), geëet het nie?  ʼn “Catch twenty two” as jy van een wil praat!  
Net so min as wat ʼn dier kan onderskei tussen goed of kwaad, of reg en verkeerd, aangesien dit nie oor ʼn rede of morele gewete (kennis en verstand) beskik nie, word daar in die beskouing in Hoofstuk 1 van die standpunt uitgegaan dat Adam en Eva net so min geweet dat hulle besig was om sonde te doen. Hulle was bloot te dom om te weet wat reg of verkeerd was!

Dit is my opregte begeerte dat die pragmatiese benadering wat in hierdie boek gevolg word, vir elkeen wat dit lees, ʼn soveel breër en ryker praktiese siening van die Bybel sal gee dat dit sal veroorsaak dat ons weer die Bybel met opwinding en verwagting sal lees.



iNLEiding DEEL ii

In Deel I, “Verborge Waarhede” het ek gesê dat, op die verhoog van die lewe, die evangelie van Jesus afspeel teen die agtergrond “backdrop” van die Pentateug, met die Ou Testament as die res van die dekor.

In hierdie Deel “Versteekte Skatte van die Nuwe Testament”, kyk ons nou in die tweede bedryf van ons “opvoering”, hoe die lewe en werk van ons Here Jesus Christus in die Nuwe Testament voortgesit word.

Ek het vanaand na ʼn gedeelte gekyk van die Mej. Wêreld kompetisie wat vanjaar in London in Engeland plaasgevind het; en wat ʼn mooi klomp meisies was dit nie! Maar toe tref dit my weereens: Uiterlike beskou, kyk ons na omtrent 160 van die wêreld se mooiste meisies in hulle pragtige aandrokke, gegrimeer deur van die wêreld se beste grimeerkunstenaars en versier met die mooiste juweliersware wat ʼn mens jou kan voorstel. Terwyl ons die uiterlike prag en skoonheid, sintuiglik kan waarneem, kan ons egter niks sien van die innerlike skoonheid wat daar in hierdie meisies is nie. Enige mens wat nie een van hierdie meisies op persoonlike vlak ken nie, sal nooit weet of sy innerlik net so mooi of selfs nog mooier is nie.

Dit is presies dieselfde in ons siening van Jesus Christus. Afgesien van die beeld wat die Bybel vir ons gee van Jesus, en afgesien van die beeld wat die kerk vir ons deur die jare van Jesus geskets en voorgehou het, kan ons die ware glorie en skoonheid van ons Heiland eers raaksien wanneer ons daardie intieme en persoonlike verhouding met Hom het. Vir die res sien ons maar net die uiterlike “grimering en versiering” van Christus.

Vir elkeen van ons is dit moontlik om Jesus op hierdie vlak te leer ken en lief te hê; Want die Bybel sê vir ons presies wat om te doen om daardie intieme persoonlik verhouding met Jesus, te bekom!  Ons moet in Hom glo!  Dis al! Jesus sal die res doen. En hoe kry ons daardie geloof? Die Bybel gee ook vir ons die antwoord hierop in Rom. 10: 14 “En hoe kan jy van Hom (Jesus) hoor sonder iemand wat preek?  En hoe kan iemand preek as hy nie gestuur is nie?” In die King James Bybel staan daar: “……faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the woord of God.”

In ʼn neutedop kan ons seker sê dat die Ou- en Nuwe Testament gaan oor die geskiedenis van die wêreld sedert die skepping, en God se doel met die mens op aarde. Na die skepping verval die mens in sonde en word uit die Paradys van God se beskerming uitgesluit. Die mens is nou blootgestel aan die gevare buite die Paradys; smart, pyn en lyding, dood en die ewige verdoemenis. God laat egter nie die mens alleen aan sy lot buite die beskerming van die Paradys oor nie, maar sluit met die mens ʼn verbond, dat Hy hulle God sal wees wat hulle sal bewaar en beskerm, maar dan moet die mens lewe soos wat Hy wil hê hulle moet lewe. Aangesien die mens nie in staat is om in homself volgens God se voorskrifte te leef nie, besluit God, na eeue se stryd tussen goed en kwaad, om ʼn nuwe verbond met die mens aan te gaan wat in wese daarop neerkom dat die mens voortaan, alleen uit genade, van die gevare buite die Paradys gered sal word, maar dan moet die mens in sy Seun, Jesus Christus glo.

Jesus Christus kom gevolglik na hierdie wêreld om die Ou Verbond af te skaf en deur Sy soen verdienste, ʼn Nuwe Verbond met die mens in te stel en te beseël, en nou breek die eindtyd, die tyd waarin ons leef, aan. In die Nuwe Testament het daar min “nuwe” dinge tot stand gekom, wat die Ou Testament nie alreeds aan ons openbaar het nie. Al wat nou nog moet gebeur is dat Jesus weer moet terugkeer aarde toe soos Hy belowe het, om eens en vir altyd ʼn einde te maak aan die sonde en die voortdurende stryd tussen goed en kwaad.

Die Woord van God is dus nie nét die Nuwe Testament nie! Om ons Here Jesus werklik te ken en te waardeer wat Hy vir ons gedoen het toe Hy die straf vir ons sondes aan die kruis op Hom geneem het, sodat ons bloot uit genade en nie uit verdienste gered kan word, is dit nodig dat ons dit moet sien teen die agtergrond en voorskrifte en omstandighede van die Ou Testamentiese tyd.

In hierdie Deel sal altesaam sewentien aspekte uit die Nuwe Testament in meer besonderhede beskou word, om sodoende die konteks waarbinne dit beskou moet word, vas te stel.  Dit is my opregte begeerte dat, wanneer hierdie aspekte binne die historiese konteks gesien word, God self, vir elkeen wat dit lees, ʼn nuwe begrip en waardering vir Sy Woord en vir Sy liefde en genade vir ons, sal gee. 

In Psalm 119: 130 skryf die Psalmdigter: “Wanneer U woord vir mense oopgaan, bring dit lig; dit gee insig aan dié wat nog onervare is.”  



 INLEIDING DEEL III

In Deel I en II het ons, vanuit 'n pragmatiese beskouing, na die “Verborge Waarhede van die Ou Testament” en die “Versteekte Skatte van die Nuwe Testament”  gekyk.

Met beide hierdie gedeeltes was die bedoeling nie om “iets nuuts” (iets wat nie voorheen bestaan het) in die Bybel te vind nie, maar bloot om vanuit 'n praktiese perspektief (pragmaties) na dit wat reeds in die Bybel staan, te kyk; 'n Herontdekking van eeue oue Bybelse waarhede, net in 'n ander ideoom!

Hierdie beskouings moet ook nie as 'n “alternatiewe eksegese”, of 'n aanval op die Christelike geloof gesien word nie. Dit is bloot 'n praktiese benadering vanuit die pragmatiese filosofie wat die waarde van 'n bewering of stelling, uitsluitend volgens die praktiese belang daarvan vir die mens, beoordeel.

Die primêre doel met die skryf van hierdie trilogie is om, vir elkeen wat in die verlede al geworstel het met sommige van die Bybel se historiese voorskrifte en gegewens, asook die toepaslikheid daarvan in ons hedendaagse sameleweing, 'n praktiese en verstaanbare verwysingsraamwerk te bied wat ons kan help met ons soeke na antwoorde op die vele kwelvrae wat vandag nog bestaan.

Die Bybel, God se brief aan jou en my, is nie bedoel om 'n geheimsinnige geskrif te wees wat net deur geleerdes verstaan en geïnterpreteer kan word nie. In die Bybel praat God self met my en jou op 'n wyse en in 'n taal, wat ons self kan verstaan en begryp. God praat nie met ons in “kodes” of raaisels nie!

In hierdie Deel kyk ons na 'n aantal praktiese toepassings van die pragmatiese beskouings van Dele I en II, asook na 'n paar vrae wat jongmense dikwels mee worstel.

Dit is my innige wens dat hierdie beskouings en riglyne, vir elkeen wat dit lees, 'n vars en duidelike begrip van die Bybel en God se wil vir elkeen van ons lewens, sal bied.

Onthou altyd: GOD IS VíR ONS; NIE TééN ONS NIE!  


KOMmentaRE

“Stes de Necker moet ernstig en met aandag gelees word

Die drieledige werk van Stes de Necker naamlik die “Verborge waarhede van die Ou Testament”, “Versteekte skatte van die Nuwe Testament” en Sola Scriptura – Die Skrif alleen is Genoeg, verteenwoordig ‘n deeglike poging deur ‘n nie-teoloog en “gewone” lidmaat. Sedert die erkenning van die algemene priesterskap van die gelowiges in die Kerkhervorming van die 1500’s, is daar waardering vir lidmate wat vanuit die kerkbank saampraat oor Bybelkwessies.

Stes se bydrae is verantwoord, goed nagevors en lesenswaardig. Kernprobleme en kernwaarhede – vir vandag – word aangesny: die ontstaan van die Bybel, die Bybel en die ouderdom van die aarde, God se Raadsplan, uitverkiesing, wie is my naaste?, God-Drieënig, bestaan die hel?, en selfs Openbaring.

Stes bied hierdie werk nederig aan en sonder ‘n soeke na eie belang. Hy wil eerder die debat stimuleer as strem. Sy hantering van die NG Kerk se belydensskrifte en ander dokumente maak die prentjie meer volledig en verdien vermelding.”

Prof Piet Strauss.
(Voormalig) Moderator van die Algemene Sinode van die NG Kerk 
Januarie 2012.

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“Dit is 'n uiters omvangryke boek en getuig van breë navorsing wat oor 'n wye verskeidenheid onderwerpe en kwessies van die Bybel gedoen is. Die opmerkings en kommentaar oor hierdie sake in die Bybel lees interessant en lesers sal dit geniet. Dit is sake en onderwerpe wat nie aldag in die gesigsveld van die gewone leser/lidmaat kom nie. Dat dit baie stof tot nadenke laat, is verseker. Hierdie boek is veral vir die fynproewer denkende mens bedoel.”

Danny Fourie
Publikasiehoof
Bybel-Media (voorheen Bybelkor)

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“Wanneer teoloë oor aktuele vraagstukke begin debatteer, is dit goed. Wanneer gelowiges wie nie formele teologiese opleiding het nie, oor Bybelse sake begin praat en skryf, is dit baie beter, veral wanneer hul navorsing omvattend is en aansluit by vrae wat gereeld deur die man op straat gevra word.

Hierdie boek is so ‘n boek, vir die man op straat, maar ek is oortuig ook vir vele dominees. In my eie bediening moes ek gereeld die vraagstukke wat in hierdie boek ontleed en behandel word, aan lidmate en selfs tieners verduidelik. Daar is by talle gelowiges ‘n fundamentalistiese aanslag wat daartoe aanleiding gee dat hulle in ‘n geloofskrisis wil beland (selfs anderdenkendes verdag wil maak!) wanneer veral Ou Testamentiese ‘historiese’ waarhede vanuit ‘n ander perspektief beskou word. Die Bybel wil geensins ‘n histories-ekskansde Waarhede sakte handboek wees nie. En wanneer sekere aspekte anders interpreteer word en verklaar word, is dit geen aanslag op die Christelike geloof nie! ‘Verskansde Waarhede van die Bybel’ is ‘n vars uitkyk op talle omstrede sake, wat waag om krities te kyk na sogenaamde ‘heilige koeie’ in Bybeluitleg.

Nog ‘n belangrike saak is dat hierdie boek ‘n mens stimuleer en aanmoedig om dieper en verder te dink. Vir my is in die kommunikasiemedia ‘n deurslaggewende faktor dat die leser/hoorder se soeke na kennis en verklarings sodanig geprikkel sal word dat hulle sal begin vrae vra, ‘elaborate’, self verder sal navorsing doen. Hierdie boek, glo ek, sal juis dít doen vir lesers.  Ek is oortuig dat ‘Verskansde Waarhede’ van groot hulp sal wees vir beide dominee én lidmaat. Dis nie swaar akademiese taal en redenerings wat verveel nie, maar bied teologies-Bybelse waarhede aan as genotvol en interessant.”

Dr. Wollie Grobler, leraar
NG Klipkerk
Bloemfontein-Noord



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Tuesday, 3 April 2018

CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (No. 68 of 2008) (NARRATIVE)






CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (No. 68 of 2008)
(NARRATIVE)

S de Necker

Who is a consumer

A consumer includes any business with a total annual turnover that is less than R2 million is also protected.

What is the Consumer Protection Act

Overview

The primary objective of the Consumer Protection Act is to establish consumer rights and provide free, effective and efficient enforcement of those rights through the establishment of the National Consumer Commission (NCC), the National Consumer Tribunal (NCT), accredited industry ombud schemes such as the Motor Industry Ombud and the Consumer Goods and Services Ombud, other ombuds with jurisdiction, the provincial consumer authorities and provincial consumer courts.

Aims

• To create consumer rights and provide means of enforcement of consumer rights
• To protect vulnerable consumers
• To promote fair business practices
• To establish the national norms and standards to ensure consumer protection
 • To establish the NCC
• To make provision for improved standards of consumer information, to prohibit certain unfair marketing and business practices
• To promote a consistent legislative and enforcement framework, related to consumer transactions and agreements
• To promote a fair, accessible and sustainable marketplace for consumer products and services
 • To promote responsible consumer behaviour
• Replace, in a new and simplified manner, existing provisions from five Acts, including the Consumer Affairs (Unfair Business Practices) Act of 1988, Trade Practices Act of 1976, Sales and Service Matters Act of 1964, Price Control Act of 1964, and Merchandise Marks Act of 1941 (specifically Sections 2-13 and 16-17)

Who may lodge consumer complaints

• An individual
• An authorised person acting on behalf of another
• A person acting as a member or in the interests of an affected group or class
• A person acting in the public interest (amicus curiae/leave of tribunal or court association, acting on the interests of its members)

The Consumer Protection Act applies to the following:

• Every transaction occurring within the Republic of South Africa
• Goods or services that are supplied or performed, in the Republic, in terms of transactions mentioned in The Act is not applicable in respect of:
 • Agreements giving effect to bargaining agreements (Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act)
 • Agreements giving effect to collective bargaining agreements
• Credit agreements, in terms of the National Credit Act, but not goods or services
 • Goods or services promoted or supplied to the state
• Industry-wide exemption being granted to regulatory authorities
• Services under employment contracts

What are Consumer Rights

The Bill of Rights enshrines the rights of all South Africans, including consumer rights. The Consumer Protection Act further outlines these key consumer rights, of which all South Africans should be aware:
• Right to Equality in the Consumer Market and Protection Against Discriminatory Marketing Practices
• Right to Privacy
• Right to Choose
• Right to Disclosure of Information
• Right to Fair and Responsible Marketing
 • Right to Fair and Honest Dealings
• Right to Fair, Just and Reasonable Terms and Conditions
• Right to Fair Value, Good Quality and Safety
• Right to Accountability from Suppliers



What does this mean for the ordinary consumer

1. Right to Equality in the Consumer Market and Protection Against Discriminatory Marketing Practices:

A. Right to free and unlimited access to goods and services
1. Consumers have a right to have goods and services made available to them and should be treated equally when buying goods and services, irrespective of gender, race, socioeconomic status or geographic location.
2. . Suppliers are not permitted to limit access to goods and services.
 3. Suppliers are not permitted to prioritise any consumer groups over others when marketing, selling or distributing their goods and services.

B.  Right to quality goods and services
1. Consumers have a right to return unsafe or defective goods within six months and may choose either:
• a refund
• a repair
• a replacement
It is the consumer’s right to chose either of the above and a supplier/ retailer may not decide for the consumer. If the goods break again after six months, the consumer may return the goods within three months for a refund or a replacement.
 2. Suppliers are not permitted to vary the quality of their goods and services in a discriminatory manner.

C.  Right to fair pricing of goods and services
1. Consumers should be treated equally, irrespective of gender, race, socio-economic status or geographic location.
2. Consumers have the right to pay the lower price for goods displaying two varying prices, unless an unauthorised person has changed the price tags.

D Right to lodge complaints
The Equality Court has jurisdiction in respect of alleged contraventions:
1. Consumer complaints may be filed with the NCC, the latter of which is required to refer such complaints to the Equality Court, if they appear to be valid.
2. Proceedings may be instituted before the Equality Court.

2. Right to Privacy

A.  Right to restrict unwanted direct marketing
1. Consumers have the right to protect their privacy and confidentiality in respect of unwanted or unsolicited correspondence.
2. Consumers have the right to refuse unwanted messages, telephone calls, letters or spam e-mails.

B.  Right to discontinue receipt of direct marketing at any time
1. Consumers have the right to opt out of receiving unsolicited direct marketing services by blocking the relevant supplier/ marketer.
 2. Consumers have the right to accept, restrict or refuse unwanted direct marketing.
3. Companies and suppliers are not permitted to continue any unsolicited direct marketing of goods and services once consumers have opted not to receive such correspondence.

3. Right to Choose

A.  Right to select the supplier of your choice
1. Consumers have the right to choose the suppliers they want and to shop around for the best price for goods and services and not to be required to enter into additional contracts to get those goods.
2. Consumers have the right to examine goods and cannot be forced to pay for broken goods if the consumer was not careless in handling the goods.
3. Suppliers must allow consumers to buy only one item and are not permitted to force consumers to buy ‘bundled’ goods.
4. Consumers cannot be forced to buy goods that they do not want. If a supplier forcefully leaves the goods with the consumer, even after the consumer has told the supplier that he/she does not want the goods, the consumer cannot be forced to pay for the goods.

B.  Right to cancel or renew a fixed-term agreement
1. Consumers have the right to cancel fixed-term agreements upon expiry of the contract period, without penalty or charge.
2. Consumers are obliged to provide suppliers with 20 business days’ notice, in writing or other recorded means, of cancellation of fixed-term agreements. Reasonable penalties may apply.
3. Suppliers must extend fixed-term agreements on a month-to-month basis, if the consumers failed to request the cancellation of such agreements.
4. Consumers may cancel fixed-term agreements at any time by giving the supplier 20 business days’ written notice, provided that upon such cancellation the consumers remain liable to the supplier for any amount owed to him/ her in terms of the agreement, up to the date of cancellation.
5. The supplier may impose a reasonable cancellation penalty with respect to any goods supplied or services rendered, and must credit the consumers with any amounts belonging to them upon cancellation.

B.  Right to request pre-authorisation for repairs or maintenance services
1. Consumers have the right to request written cost estimates/ quotations from suppliers, prior to the suppliers executing any repairs or maintenance services.
2. Suppliers are not permitted to charge consumers for drawing up any cost estimates/quotations.
3. Consumers have the right to pre-authorise or refuse any additional repairs or maintenance services.
4. Consumers are not liable to pay for repairs or maintenance services done without their prior approval.
5. Suppliers are not permitted to charge consumers for any diagnostic work/inspections required in compiling cost estimates/quotations unless there was prior agreement.

C.  Right to cancel direct marketing contracts within the cooling-off period
1. Suppliers are required to include ‘a cooling-off period’ in direct marketing transactions – cooling-off periods generally span five business days.
2. Consumers have the right to cancel agreements within the cooling-off period, without providing reasons or incurring penalties for doing so.
3. Suppliers are required to return payments received from consumers, within 15 business days of receiving the cancellation notice.

D.  Right to cancel advance reservations, bookings or orders 1. Consumers have the right to cancel any advance reservations, bookings or orders.

2. Suppliers are entitled to request a reasonable advance deposit for reservations, bookings or orders, depending on the nature of the business and specific circumstances.
3. Suppliers are entitled to impose a reasonable charge for the cancellation of reservations, bookings or orders, depending on the nature of the business and specific circumstances.

E.  Right to choose or examine goods, even after purchase and delivery
1. Suppliers have the right to charge consumers for loss or damage of property/goods if this resulted from gross negligence, recklessness or deliberate actions.
2. Consumers have the right to refuse display items or opened goods, and request unopened/new goods.
3. Consumers are entitled to reject goods if they do not correspond with pre-approved samples.
4. Suppliers are required to provide consumers with reasonable opportunity to examine goods purchased or delivered.

F.  Right to return goods and seek redress for unsatisfactory services
1. Consumers have the right to return unsafe or defective goods and request a full refund for such goods, provided this is done within a reasonable period.
2. Consumers have the right to return goods that were not pre examined prior to delivery.
G. Right to retain and not pay for unsolicited goods and services
1. Consumers have the right to return unsolicited goods or services, at the risk and expense of the supplier.
2. Consumers are entitled to retain unsolicited goods or services after 20 business days.

4. Right to Disclosure of Information

A.  Right to information in plain and understandable language
1. Consumers have the right to information in plain and understandable language and to be given receipts for goods or services bought.
2. Consumers have the right to demand contracts/agreements in plain language that are easy to understand.

B.  Right to disclosure of prices of goods and services
1. Suppliers are required to display the prices of goods and services, in full view of consumers.
2. Consumers have the right to request the unit cost of goods and services, so as to avoid any ‘hidden’ costs.
3. Suppliers are required to specify the duration of any promotions in catalogues or brochures, failing which consumers have the right to purchase the goods or services at the specified prices.
4. Consumers have the right to demand paying the lower price for goods displaying two varying prices. Suppliers are not permitted to charge consumers the higher price for the same goods.

C.  Right to product labelling and trade description
1. Suppliers and service providers are required to display labelling and trade descriptions of products that do not mislead consumers about the contents of the packaging or goods attached to the products.
2. Suppliers are not permitted to alter, amend, conceal, remove or deface trademarks and other product labelling, so as to mislead consumers.
3. Producers/importers of products or goods are required to display the country of origin and any other prescribed information, such as expiry dates.
4. Producers, suppliers and importers are required to disclose the presence of any genetically modified ingredients, in compliance with international and South African laws and regulations.
5. NB! A trade description refers to the name of the producer, the product’s number, quantity, measure, etc.
6. NB! A trademark refers to the intellectual property of the goods produced/supplied, as per Trade Marks Act, No. 194 of 1993.

D.  Right to clear disclosure of reconditioned or grey market goods
1. Suppliers are required to display notice that ‘grey’ market goods have been reconditioned, rebuilt or remade.
 2. Suppliers are required to disclose, by means of a clear and visible notice, that goods are being sold without the approval or licence of the registered trademark owner.
3. NB! Parallel/grey goods are goods intended for sale in one national market, but imported from their original destination for sale in another market and do not carry any warranties or guarantees against the original manufacturer; for example, goods intended for China that are sold in South Africa.
  
E.  Right to sales records
1. Consumers have the right to demand confirmation of purchases made, in the form of receipts or invoices.
2. Suppliers are required to include, via receipts or invoices, the following:
- suppliers’ full contact information, business names and value-added tax (VAT) registration numbers
- name and description of goods - date/s on which the transaction/s took place
- unit price of goods purchased - quantity of goods purchased
- total price of transaction/s, including any applicable taxes
- full contact information, business names and addresses

F.  Right to disclosure by intermediaries
1. Intermediaries, such as brokers, sales representatives and estate agents, are required to disclose their associations or affiliations with the entities/persons they represent.

G.  Right to identification of deliverers, installers and others
1. Deliverers, installers and others are required to visibly display name badges or similar identification, to the satisfaction of consumers, when delivering or installing goods/ products.
2. Consumers have the right to demand identification from the deliverers, installers and others, prior to allowing the delivery or installation of goods/products.

5. Right to Fair and Responsible Marketing

A.  Right to protection against bait marketing
1. Suppliers are not allowed to lie to consumers about the price, description or benefits of goods or services.
2. Suppliers are not permitted to mislead consumers in respect of pricing, the nature, properties, advantages or uses of goods or services advertised, if such goods or services are not actually available for purchase or procurement in accordance with these standards.
3. Suppliers must not advertise goods as being available at a certain price when they are not.

B.  Right to protection against negative option marketing
1. Suppliers are not permitted to promote any goods or services or automatically enter consumers into agreements for the supply of goods or services, i.e. if consumers receive unwanted or unsolicited goods or services, they are under no obligation to pay for these goods or services.

C.  Right to protection against direct marketing
1. Suppliers or service providers that directly market any goods or services to consumers must inform them of their right to cancel the agreements within the cooling-off period of five business days.
2. Suppliers or service providers that directly market any unsolicited goods or services to consumers are not permitted to solicit payment for these items, subject to certain conditions.

D.  Right to protection in catalogue marketing
1. Suppliers are required to disclose the following:
 - supplier name and registration/licence number
 - address and contact details - sales records - currency for sales
- delivery arrangements
cancellation, return, exchange and refund policy
- instructions on lodging a complaint
2. NB! Catalogue marketing refers to an agreement entered into by telephone (initiated by the consumer), fax or postal order, where the consumer is not afforded the opportunity to inspect goods prior to delivery.

 E.  Right to protection in terms of trade coupons and similar promotions
1. Persons are not permitted to make promotional offers with the intention of not fulfilling them, or fulfilling them in a manner other than as offered.
2. Persons making promotional offers are required to adhere to the following:
 - disclose nature of price, reward, gift, free goods or services, price reduction, enhancement of quality or quantity of goods, discounted of free thing being offered;
- disclose goods or services to which the offer relates;
 - disclose steps required by consumers to accept the offers or receive the benefits of the offers;
 - disclose particulars of any person from whom, any place where, and any date and time on or at which the consumer may receive the prize, reward, gift, free good or service, price reduction or concession, enhancement of quantity or quality of goods or services or other discounted or free thing;
- ensure that the supply of the particular prize, reward, gift, free or reduced price good, or the capacity to provide enhanced quality or services, is sufficient to accommodate all reasonably anticipated demands resulting from the offer;
- not limit or restrict capacity to supply any such goods or services in response to the acceptance of the offer, on any basis other than that it applies to such a supply in exchange for any other form of consideration;
- not require the consumer to accept an inferior quality of any such goods or services than those generally available to any other consumer on the same date who tenders a different form of consideration; and
 - Not impose any monetary charge for the administration, processing or handling of a transaction, in respect of which the consumer tenders a trade coupon
– this only applies to where a membership fee is being paid.

F.  Right to protection in customer loyalty programmes
1. Persons must not offer participation in a loyalty programme, or offer any loyalty credit or reward, with the intention of not providing it or providing it in a manner other than as offered.
2. Any documents setting out an offer must clearly state the following:
- nature of the programme, credit or award being offered;
- goods or services to which the offer relates;
 - steps required by consumers to participate in the programme or receive any benefits in terms of the programme; and
- contact details where consumers may gain access to the programme, or any loyalty credit or rewards in terms of the programme.
 3. NB! Customer loyalty programmes are loyalty credits or rewards, which are a legal medium of exchange when offered or tendered as consideration for any goods or services offered, or transactions contemplated, in terms of such loyalty programmes/credits/awards.

 6. Right to Fair and Honest Dealings

A.  Right to protection against unconscionable conduct
1. Suppliers are not allowed to use physical force, pressure or harassment when marketing or supplying goods or services to consumers.
 2. Suppliers are not permitted to use physical force against consumers, coercion, undue influence, pressure, duress, harassment, unfair tactics or any other similar conduct when doing the following:
 - marketing goods or services
- supplying goods or services
- negotiating, concluding, executing or enforcing agreement to supply goods and services;
- demanding or collecting payments for goods or services
- Recovering goods or services from consumers
3. Suppliers are not permitted to take advantage of consumers who are unable to protect their interests due to mental or physical disability, poor literacy, ignorance or inability to understand the language of an agreement or any similar factors.
4. NB! Unconscionable conduct refers to behaviour that is unethical or improper.

B.  Right to protection against false, misleading or deceptive representations
1. Suppliers are not permitted to, directly or indirectly, provide consumers with false, misleading or deceptive representations regarding goods or services.
2. Suppliers are not permitted to use exaggeration, innuendo or ambiguity when referring to goods or services or the benefits thereof.

C.  Right to protection against fraudulent schemes and offers
1. Persons are not permitted to initiate, sponsor, promote or knowingly participate in communication or activities with the intent to defraud others.
2. Persons are not permitted to produce counterfeit currency, or purport to increase a sum of money through scientific means or otherwise.
3. Persons are not permitted to engage in fraudulent or unlawful financial transactions.

D.  Right to protection against pyramid and related schemes
1. Persons are not permitted to promote or knowingly join, enter into or participate in the following schemes, whether directly or indirectly:
- multiplication schemes (offering interest rates of 20% and above the South African Reserve Bank-regulated repo rate);
- pyramid schemes (receiving compensation, primarily from the respective recruitment of other participants);
 - chain letter schemes (actively solicit or recruit participants, and obtain compensation for new recruits); or
 - any other fraudulent schemes or scams.

E.  Right to assume that suppliers are entitled to sell goods
1. Consumers have the right to assume that suppliers possess the legal right or authority to supply goods or products that are on sale or being promoted by them.
2. Consumers have the right to assume that lessor’s possess the legal right or authority to lease goods or products at the time that the lessees are to take possession of the leased goods.

F.  Procedure for sales by auction
1. Suppliers are required, when auctioning goods or products in lots and unless otherwise stated, to auction lots separately, via separate transactions.
2. Auctioneers are required to close auctions by visibly or audibly announcing their completion.
3. Auctioneers should give notice that a sale by auction is subject to a reserved or upset price, and the right to bid by or on behalf of the owner/auctioneer.

G.  Right to changes, deferrals and waivers, and the substitution of goods
1. Suppliers are required, in the event of deferrals, waivers and substitutions to original agreements, to treat these as changes to existing agreements and not as grounds to enter into new agreements.
2. Consumers have the right to substitute goods or products, and are entitled to protection of these substituted goods or products, from the date of delivery.
3. Suppliers are required to deliver to consumers amended sales agreements or records, describing the substituted goods, but without making other changes to the original agreements or records.

H.  Right to protection against over-selling and over-booking
1. Suppliers are not permitted to accept payment or other consideration for any goods or services, if:
- they have no intention of supplying those goods or providing those services; and
- they intend to supply goods that are materially different from the goods or services for which payment was accepted.
2. Suppliers are required to honour the supply of goods or services on specified dates, times and other participants, if committing to such arrangements in reservations or bookings.
3. Consumers have the right to demand refunds for full amounts paid in respect of commitments or reservations, together with interest, at prescribed rates, from the dates of payment until the dates of reimbursement.

7. Right to Fair, Just and Reasonable Terms and Conditions:

A. Right to protection against unfair, unreasonable or unjust contract terms
1. Consumers have the right to free copies of contracts. The terms and conditions of the contract must not put the consumer at a disadvantage.
2. Suppliers are not permitted to market, supply or enter into an agreement to supply goods or services at prices or terms that are unfair, unreasonable or unjust.
3. Suppliers are not permitted to require consumers to waive any rights, assume any obligations or waive any liability of the suppliers on terms that are unfair, unreasonable or unjust.

B.  Right to obtain notice for certain terms and conditions
1. Suppliers are required to provide consumers with prior written notice of clauses in agreements that may constitute a potential risk or liability to consumers.
2. Suppliers must specifically draw the fact, nature and potential effects of risks to the attention of consumers, in a conspicuous manner and form, to which the consumers accordingly accept responsibility.
C.  Right to obtain free copies of agreements/contracts

1. Consumers are entitled to obtain free copies or free electronic access to copies of agreements/contracts, irrespective of whether consumers have entered into such agreements/ contracts.
2. Free copies should include an itemised breakdown of financial obligations under such agreements.
3. Suppliers are required to keep records of transactions entered into over telephone or other recordable forms, in the event of the consumer-supplier agreement not being in writing.

D.  Right to refuse prohibited transactions, agreements and terms or conditions
1. Suppliers are not permitted to make a transaction or agreement if the terms and conditions:
- are contrary to the Consumer Protection Act;
- mislead or deceive consumers;
- subject consumers to fraudulent conduct;
- directly or indirectly deprive consumers of rights in terms of the Act;
- avoid suppliers’ obligations or duties in terms of the Act;
- limit or exempt suppliers of goods or services from liability for any loss, directly or indirectly attributable to the gross negligence of the suppliers or any persons acting for or controlled by the suppliers;
 - constitute an assumption of risk or liability by the consumers for a loss;
- impose an obligation on consumers to pay for damage to, or otherwise;
- require consumers to enter into supplementary agreements;
- falsely express an acknowledgement by consumers that, before the agreement was made, no representations or warranties were made in connection with the agreement by the supplier or a person on behalf of the supplier; or
- require the consumers to forfeit any money to the supplier.

E.  Right to approach the Court to ensure fair and just contract terms and conditions
1. If the unfair terms and conditions offered by the supplier constitute damages or loss, consumers are entitled to institute proceedings in the competent court with jurisdiction for appropriate order or redress.
2. Except when otherwise provided by law, the area of civil jurisdiction of a Magistrate’s Court is the district or area for which the Court has been established.
3. Unless all the parties in a case consent to higher jurisdiction, the jurisdiction of a Magistrate’s Court is limited to cases in which the claim value does not exceed R100 000, where the action arises from a liquid document or credit agreement, or R50 000 in all other cases.
4. However, in terms of Section 115 (2) of the Consumer Protection Act, a person who has suffered loss or damages as a result of prohibited conduct: - may not institute a claim in a Civil Court for the assessment of the amount or awarding of damages, if that person has consented to an award of damages in the Consent Order, as issued by the Consumer Tribunal. - if entitled to commence an action in the Civil Court, the applicant must file with the Registrar of the Court or the Clerk of the Court, a notice from the Chairperson of the Tribunal in the prescribed from, specifying the following: - certifying whether the conduct constituting the basis for the action has been found to be a prohibited or required conduct in terms of this Act; and - stating the date of the Tribunal’s findings.
5. Section 115 (4) states that an appeal or application for review against an order made by the Tribunal suspends any right to commence an action in a Civil Court.

8. Right to Fair Value, Good Quality and Safety

A.  Right to demand quality service
 1. Consumers are entitled to the following, when entering into agreements/contracts with suppliers:
 - timely performance and completion of the services;
 - timely notice of any unavoidable delays in the performance of the services;
- high-quality services, which consumers are entitled to expect; and
- use, delivery or installation of goods that are free of defects and of a quality that persons are generally entitled to expect, if any such goods are required for performance of the services.
2. Suppliers are required to remedy any defects in the quality of services performed or goods supplied; or refund the consumers a reasonable portion of the price paid for the services performed and goods supplied, in the event of these being sub-standard.
 3. “No returns and no refund” policies are not allowed, suppliers must refund or exchange goods that become faulty within the first six months of being purchased.

B.  Right to safe, high-quality goods
1. Consumers are entitled to receive goods and services that are of good quality, in good working order and free of any defects, and that comply with any applicable standards set under the Standards Act, No. 29 of 1993 or any other public regulation.

C.  Right to implied warranty of quality
1. In any transaction or agreement pertaining to the supply of goods to consumers, it is an implied provision that the producer or importer, distributor and retailer each warrant that the goods comply with the requirements and standards of being safe, of good quality and durable.
2. Consumers are permitted to return goods to suppliers, without penalty and at the suppliers’ risk and expense, within a period of six months after delivery of such goods, if the goods are of inferior quality, unsafe or defective.
 3. Suppliers are obliged to refund, repair or replace the failed, unsafe and defective goods.
 4. Suppliers are obliged to replace goods or refund the consumer the price paid for the goods within a period of three months after repairs have been done, if the repaired goods are found to be defective, have failed or are considered unsafe.

D.  Right to a warranty on repaired goods
1. Suppliers are obliged to warrant every new or reconditioned part installed during any repair or maintenance work, and the labour required to install it, for a period of three months after the date of installation or a longer period, as the supplier may specify in writing.
2. NB! Warranties are null and void if consumers are found to be misusing or abusing goods or property, while under warranty.

E.  Right to receive warnings on the fact and nature of risks
1. Suppliers are obliged to make consumers aware of any risks of an unusual character or nature, risks of which consumers could not reasonably be expected to be aware, or which ordinarily alert consumers could not reasonably be expected to contemplate, depending on the specific circumstances or risk that could result in serious injury or death.
2. Suppliers are obliged to bring to the consumers’ attention notice/labelling of any hazardous or unsafe goods, and provide the consumers with adequate instructions for the safe handling and use of those goods.

F.  Right to recovery and safe disposal of designated products or components
1. Suppliers are responsible for accepting and disposing of waste deemed unsuitable for disposal in common waste systems, if so specified in any national legislation.

G.  Right to have products monitored for safety and/or recalled
1. Industry codes will make provision for the return/recall of hazardous, unsafe or defective goods.

H.  Right to claim damages for injuries caused by unsafe/ defective goods
1. Producers, importers, distributors or retailers of any goods are each liable for any harm caused wholly or in part, as a consequence of the following:
- supplying any unsafe goods;
 - product failure, defect or hazard in any goods; or
- inadequate instructions or warnings provided to the consumer pertaining to any hazard arising from or associated with the use of any goods, irrespective of whether the harm resulted from any negligence on the part of the producers, importers, distributors or retailers, as the case may be.

9. Right to Accountability from Suppliers

A.  Right to protection when entering lay-by agreements
1. Consumers are entitled to purchase goods and services via layby agreements. In cases where the supplier fails to deliver any goods, these suppliers must, at the discretion of the consumers, either: - supply equivalent or superior products; or - give the consumer a full refund of money paid, plus interest; and - suppliers must keep the consumers’ deposits in interestbearing accounts
2. Consumers may cancel lay-by agreements and get a refund with interest, but a supplier may charge a fair and reasonable penalty.

B.  Right to protection with regard to prepaid certificates, credits and vouchers, and access to prepaid services and service facilities
1. Suppliers in possession of any prepaid certificates, credits, vouchers, membership fees or other money belonging to the consumers, must do the following:
- not treat such property as their own;
- exercise care, diligence and skill; and
- assume liability for any losses suffered by consumers in this regard.